How fast did the saliva and mucus fly out of the man's mouth?

40mph

How many droplets flew out of the man's mouth?

100,000

Did all of the sneeze droplets carry disease?

some

How fast will the cold air kill the viruses?

minutes

What does the virus need to survive?

human host

What is Holly's first line of defense?

nose hairs

What do the nose hairs do?

trap every particle Holly breathes in

What is Holly's second line of defense?

mucus

What does the mucus do?

traps particles, dissolves bacteria and viruses & sends to the stomach

What causes the flu in Holly?

influenza B

How does the virus get from Holly's nose to her throat?

she sucks it in when she breathes

The winding nasal passage is designed to ———

trap viruses

The winding nasal passages washes viruses into the ———

stomach to be destroyed

Virus burrows through a thick layer of ———

mucus

After the virus burrows through the mucus, it makes it to the ———

throat cells

The spikes on the virus mimic a ———

protein

The spikes on the virus are used to ———

communicate

The virus docks to a _______ on the cell surface.

receptor

The cell is fooled and reads the virus as a ———

harmless protein

The virus slips inside of the throat cell. This is the ________ stage of the invasion.

first

The cell has been taken over. It is no longer making proteins but components for ———

thousands of new viruses

From a single invaded throat cell _______ viruses are made.

10,000

Holly's throat cell has become a ———

virus cloning factory

Each newly cloned virus seeks out a new throat cell to make into a ———

virus cloning machine

After just 2 hours the virus infects _______ cells.

5,000

The virus can make Holly critically ill if it reaches her ———

lungs

The first line of defense of the _______ system are the ———

immune, natural killer cells

NKC spray a _______ and kill invaded throat cells. NKC kill _______ throat cells, too.

poison, healthy

When you are sick you get a _______ throat because many of your throat cells are getting killed off.

sore

Two single _______ blood cells are able to wipe out the invasion.

immune

Cell debris can pile up in Holly's throat and _______ her.

choke

_______ dispose of cell debris by _______ it.

macrophages, eating

Debris that is not consumed by macrophages are carried away by _______ to be _______.

cilia, swallowed and digested

Holly's immune system has destroyed thousands of her own throat cells. Therefore she gets a _______.

sore throat

The virus is not causing the symptoms of the flu, it is Holly's own _______.

immune system

Macrophages eating throat debris send out a chemical message called _______.

interleukins

Interleukins summon reinforcement to the battlefield. They make Holly feel _______. They make her nerves _______, making the slightest movement cause her _______.

terrible,hypersensitive, pain

Interleukins cause _______ common with the flu.

aches

Holly's pain has a purpose, her body is telling her to _______.

slow down

Holly feels cold because the _______ has caused the normal thermostat in her body to trick her body to think that it is _______. She shivers, and _______ her body. She gets a _______.

interleukins, cold, warms, fever

The rate of cells being produced _______ with the temperature. _______ cells are made at a faster pace. Holly's hair and nails grow _______% quicker than normal.

increases, immune, 20

Raised temperature makes the _______ vessels around Holly's brain to _______. That gives her a _______ headache.

blood, swell, throbbing

Though very high fevers are dangerous, a slight temperature helps fight the virus. Dropping the temper would give the _______ a new lease on life.

virus

Immune system makes you suffer until your body can defeat the virus. More killer cells are arriving in the throat, yet new viruses are still being made. 36 hours have passed without success. _______ cells are collecting virus _______.

dendritic, fragments

Using virus fragments, dendritic cells go look for a specific _______ cell and _______ cell. They are one out of a trillion.

T, B

The specific T and B cells are made to deal with _______ B.

influenza

The dendritic cell reaches a lymph gland. It sticks out a virus fragment. It docks with a T cell. The original T cell is then cloned, and _______ are made.

thousands

Packed with _______ cells, Holly's _______ glands begin to swell.

T, lymph

T cells go through the _______ stream to throat cells. They only kill _______ cells, unlike the natural killer cells that kill all the cells in the area.

blood, infected

Holly's cough is further evidence that the T cells are winning. _______ have been destroyed in this battle and the only way to clear her throat of the cell debris is to cough.

cilia

A _______ cell has recognized the spikes of the virus carried to it by a dendritic cel.

B

B cells begin to clone themselves. B cells do not leave the area, so instead the produce small proteins. The proteins are called ———

antibodies

Antibodies go to the virus and attach themselves to the _______ so they can no longer invade throat cells.

spikes

Viruses breeding in Holly's cells are destroyed by _______ cells.

T

B cells send out _______ to attach to viruses that are free floating, making them unable to attack new cells. It is a 2-prong attack.

antibodies

Holly's symptoms (do/do not) go away immediately after her body beats the virus.

do not

After being killed, do new throat cells begin to grow?

yes

After the defeat, T cells become _______ cells. They patrol Holly's body for years to come. They make her immune to the influenza B virus.

memory

Influenza B can _______ so that the memory cells do not recognize it next year.

mutate

How is the flu passed on to the next person?

saliva

Are most of Holly's symptoms from the virus itself or the immune response?

immune response

The natural killer cells are like a (sniper/grenade/ninja with ninja stars)

grenade

The T cells are like a (sniper/grenade/ninja with ninja stars)

sniper

What is a ninja star?

antibody

The B cells are like a (sniper/grenade/ninja with ninja stars)

ninja with ninja stars



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